(1) Heart fat. The mediastinal fat, or heart fat, is located on the ventral floor
of the thoracic cavity where the heart was located.
Intercostal. Situated, positioned, or attached between the ribs.
(3) Feathering. The fat deposits lying beneath the pleura and between the
intercostal muscle bundles.
Festooning. The fat deposited on the internal surface of the thoracic
(5) Diaphragm/skirt. The diaphragm or skirt is the flat muscle that separates
the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity. This is the muscle which, when
contracted, allows the thoracic cavity to expand and bring air into the lungs. The skirt is
completely covered with serous membrane.
(6) Hanging tender. The hanging tender consists of the remains of the
pillars of the diaphragm located in the lumbar region.
b. Abdominal and Pelvic Cavities. The abdomen is the largest cavity in the
body. The abdominal and pelvic cavities are hollows or spaces on the inside of the
carcass below the thoracic cavity. They are considered two cavities though they are not
separated from each other. These cavities contained the digestive and reproductive
organs in the live animal.
(1) Kidney knob. The kidney knob is a large glob of fat and an encased
kidney; it is located in the lumbar region of the abdominal cavity.
(2) Flank pocket. This is the internal surface of the abdominal cavity or
flank, at the posterior end is the flank pocket formed by the folding over of the flank.
This is an area of concern since it is a site of early deterioration due to the lack of air
(3) Hanging tender. Just anterior and dorsal to the kidney knob is the
hanging tender, or pillar of the diaphragm. This is the muscular attachment of the skirt.
(4) Abdominal tunic. This is the heavy sheet of connective tissue between
the flank muscles.
1-13. STATES OF REFRIGERATION
Refrigeration requirements or states of refrigeration are described in the
inspection data packet. There are two states of refrigeration, chilled or frozen.
a. Chilled. Meat products that have an internal temperature greater than 28F
(-2.2C) and are held under refrigerated storage temperatures are considered chilled.
The optimum temperature range of chilled meat is 32F (0C) to 40F (4.4C).