n. Do. Abbreviation for dorsal.
o. Po. Abbreviation for posterior.
p. Px. Abbreviation for proximal.
q. V. Abbreviation for ventral.
r. Long Axis. The length of a cut of meat, normally anterior-to-posterior or
s. Grain of the Meat. Longitudinal direction of the muscle fibers (similar to the
grain of wood). When steaks are cut, they shall be sliced perpendicular to the grain of
the meat to achieve tenderness.
t. Tempering (Tempered). The controlled defrosting of a frozen item until its
internal temperature rises to approximately 26F (-3.34 C).
u. Pressing (Pressed). Placing a tempered cut of meat into a mold and
reshaping it under 500-750 pounds-per-square-inch (psi) pressure until a desired shape
v. Refreezing (Refrozen). Placing a tempered pressed cut of meat in a freezer
to reduce its internal temperature to 0F (-17.8C) or lower.
Section II INSPECTION OF BEEF ROASTS AND STEAKS
a. Beef roasts and steaks are portion-controlled items that have been made
boneless and processed to specific requirements so that they may be cooked and
served in a dining facility without further processing (boning, trimming, slicing, and so
b. Prior lessons pertaining to beef, taught identification of cuts utilizing skeletal
structures. Now, identification must be determined using muscle groups. It may be
necessary to review Lessons 1 and 2 for terms and Lesson 3 for wholesale market cuts
c. Sampling will be in accordance with the inspection data packet.