A final consideration in intravenous therapy is the
pH of the solution to be administered to the patient.
Solutions with an alkaline (pH greater than 7.0) or
an acidic (pH less than 7.0) pH value have been
associated with irritation of the veins
(thrombophlebitis). In order to reduce the
incidence of thrombophlebitis, buffering agents can
be added to solutions with highly acidic or alkaline
pH values in order to bring the pH of these
solutions closer to pH 7.4, the approximate pH of
blood. However, the alteration of some intravenous
solutions' pH values can affect their stability as well
as the stability of drugs added to those solutions.
Consequently, appropriate pharmaceutical
references must be consulted prior to adding
Below are the pH ranges for various intravenous
0.9 Sodium Chloride
Dextrose 5% in Water
pH range of solutions
are from 4.0 to 5.0.
Two considerations of intravenous therapy have
just been discussed. These two considerations,
the tonicity and the pH of infused fluids, are
pertinent topics when discussing the preparation
and the administration of intravenous fluids.