d. Calcium. Calcium is the fifth most abundant mineral in the body. It is
present in more than 98 percent in the extracellular fluid and soft tissue. Calcium is
essential in the formation of bone and for the coagulation of blood. It plays a central
role in muscle contraction.
(1) Lack of calcium (hypocalcemia) may result in muscle cramps, tetany,
convulsions, dyspnea, and personality changes.
(2) Excess calcium (hypercalcemia) may result in muscle weakness, thirst,
anorexia, vomiting, constipation, stupor, and coma. Severe hypercalcemia may result in
calcium deposits in the soft tissue of the body.
e. Other Essential Minerals. Other essential minerals include Phosphorus,
Sodium, Zinc, Sulfur, Chlorine, Copper, Magnesium, Potassium, and Iodine.