d. Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin).
(1) Vitamin B2 acts as a coenzyme for a variety of proteins and is found in
milk, lean meats, egg, and yeast.
(2) A lack of this vitamin can cause sore throat and inflammation at the
corner of the mouth. Later, inflammation of the tongue and seborrheic dermatosis may
appear. B2 deficiency is difficult to recognize because it is similar to other vitamin
deficiencies, and the symptoms are common signs of many diseases.
e. Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine).
(1) Vitamin B6 acts as a coenzyme for metabolic transformation of amino
acids, particularly the sulfur containing amino acids. Sources are meats, seafood,
vegetables, and yeast.
(2) Deficiencies can cause seborrheic-like lesions about the eyes, nose, and
mouth. Convulsive seizures may also be seen.
(3) Patients on INH (isoniazid) therapy require B6 supplementation because
INH enhances its excretion.
f. Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin).
(1) Vitamin B12 is essential for cell growth, replication, and maintenance of
myelin throughout the nervous system. Meats, milk, and salt-water fish can provide
Vitamin B12 through the diet.
(2) B12 deficiency causes pernicious anemia and may result in nerve
damage due to inadequate myelin production.
g. Folic Acid. (Folate). Folic acid acts as a coenzyme in metabolic reactions in
which there is a non-carbon unit transfer. Sources of folic acid are vegetables, meats,
h. Niacin (Nicotinic Acid, Nicotinamide).
(1) Niacin acts as a coenzyme in the breakdown of glycogen, fat synthesis,
and tissue respiration. Sources are bread, lean meat, liver, and yeast.
(2) Deficiency causes pellagra, which affects the skin, GI tract, or CNS.
Reddening of the skin, like sunburn, first appears on the back of the hands. Other
areas exposed to light are later affected and become widespread.