The second most common form of immunoglobulin in serum is Ig_. It represents
approximately (5%) (10%) (15%) total serum immunoglobulins. It normally exists
in serum both in m___c and p_____c forms. The IgA dimer consists of two
m________ic units. It is the predominant immunoglobulin class found in body
The IgD molecule is a m_____r and is normally present in serum in t___e
amounts. Its main function has not been determined. IgE comprises only 0.004%
of the total serum i_____s. IgE normally exists in m_____ic form.
Complement is a system of ___m p___s that is the primary dissolved m___tor of
antigen-antibody reactions. The complement system is one of the basic d____e
mechanisms of the body. It is a complex series of e___tic proteins occurring in
normal serum which interact to enhance the i___e r___e. The system involves the
sequential a___tion and interaction of at least (4) (14) (24) serum proteins and
may occur via the c____l pathway or the a____e pathway. These two pathways
are p____l but i_____t. The two pathways do become identical at the point of the
m___e a___k c___x. Natural inhibitors and instability of the complexes act to
balance the system so that u___d activation does not occur. Thus, total c____tion
of the components does not occur every time there is activation.
Activated complement components affect the i___tory and immune response in
the following manner:
a. Increased vascular p_____y.
b. Smooth muscle c_____tion.
Mast cell and basophil de___tion with the subsequent release of h_____s.
d. N____l activation and c___xis.
e. Enhanced o____tion and p_____s.
L___s of target cells, b____a, and v_____s.
Many of these effects are due to complement cleavage products known as
a____ns. A related term is a____s, which is used to refer to an exaggerated