Patients with normal serum protein fractions are identified when their serum
protein electrophoretic patterns are similar to that of the normal control with no
observable i_____e, d_____e, or a_____e of any particular zone.
Hypogammaglobulinemia (agammaglobulinemia) is an immunological deficiency
state characterized by an abnormally (low) (high) level of generally all classes of
gamma globulin. It is identified by an a___t or d___d zone. In this situation, the
patient is not producing immunoglobulins in sufficient quantities to maintain a
normal i____e state.
Polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia is a broad (decrease) (increase) in gamma
globulins due to numerous c___s of plasma cells producing a heterogeneous
group of i_________s. It is identified by a diffuse increase in the g____a zone.
This condition (is) (is not) indicative of a specific disease state.
Monoclonal hypergammaglobulinemia follows the unexplained proliferation of a
single c____e of immunoglobulin-producing cells. It appears as a narrow, tall
spike in the g____a zone.
Immuno__________ is a qualitative method that combines e_________s and
i____________n. This technique is especially useful in the identification and
diagnosis of the m________l gammopathies. It is a two-stage procedure with the
first step involving the electrophoretic s_______n of the patient's serum specimen
and normal control. Following electrophoresis, specific a______a are placed in
troughs parallel to the line of the fractionated proteins. The proteins and antisera
diffuse in all directions with immunoprecipitin a___ forming where specific a_____
and corresponding protein antigen meet. Following a staining procedure using a
protein stain, increases or decreases of the individual's immunoglobulins may be
observed by comparing the patient's i________________n arcs to those of the