INTRODUCTION TO ANATOMY, PHYSIOLOGY, AND PATHOLOGY
Section I. PRINCIPLES OF ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
INTRODUCTION TO ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
a. Anatomy is the study of the structure of the body. Often, you may be more
interested in functions of the body. Functions include digestion, respiration, circulation,
and reproduction. Physiology is the study of the functions of the body.
b. The body is a chemical and physical machine. As such, it is subject to certain
laws. These are sometimes called natural laws. Each part of the body is engineered to
do a particular job. These jobs are functions. For each job or body function, there is a
particular structure engineered to do it.
ORGANIZATION OF THE HUMAN BODY
The human body is organized into cells, tissues, organs, organ systems,
and the total organism.
a. Cells are the smallest living unit of body construction.
b. A tissue is a grouping of like cells working together. Examples are muscle
tissue and nervous tissue.
c. An organ is a structure composed of several different tissues performing a
particular function. Examples include the lungs and the heart.
d. Organ systems are groups of organs that together perform an overall
function. Examples are the respiratory system and the digestive system.
e. The total organism is the individual human being. You are a total organism.
SYSTEMS OF THE BODY
A system is a combination of parts or organs which, in association, perform some
particular function. The systems of the body and their functions are as follows:
a. Integumentary. Covers and protects the body from drying, injury, and
infection, and also has functions of sensation, temperature regulation, and excretion.
b. Skeletal. Provides a framework for the body, supports the organs, and
furnishes a place of attachment for muscles.