c. Muscular. Provides the force for the motion and propulsion of the body.
d. Respiratory. Absorbs oxygen from the air and gives off the waste product
carbon dioxide produced by the body tissues.
e. Cardiovascular. Functions in the transportation of blood throughout the
f. Lymphatic. System of vessels and glands that returns protein and fluid to
the blood from the various body tissues; also furnishes the body with protective
mechanisms against pathogenic organisms.
g. Gastrointestinal. Digests and absorbs food substances and excretes waste
h. Genitourinary. Excretes and transports urine (urinary), and elaborates and
transports reproductive cells and sex hormones (reproductive).
i. Nervous and Special Senses. Give the body awareness of its environment,
and enable it to react to that environment.
NORMAL ANATOMICAL POSITION
The standard positioning of the human body (figure 11) has been chosen to be
the erect (standing) position, with feet flat on the floor, upper extremities at the sides,
and palms, toes, and eyes directed forward.
ASPECTS AND DIRECTIONS
a. Anterior, Frontal, or Ventral: refers to the front side of the body or toward
b. Posterior or Dorsal: refers to the back or toward the back of the body.
c. Medial: toward or nearer the midline of the body (figure 11).
d. Lateral: away from the midline or toward the side of the body (figure 11).
e. Proximal: nearest to a point under consideration or the point of origin. In the
case of the extremities, the articulations (joints) are considered points of origin
f. Distal: remoteness from a point under consideration or the point of origin; the
opposite of proximal (figure 12).