Figure 5-1. Food Guide Pyramid.
h. Diabetic Diet. The diabetic diet is indicated in the treatment of the metabolic
disorder diabetes mellitus. This disease results from an inadequate production or
utilization of insulin. The object of treating the diabetic patient by diet, with or without
insulin or oral drugs, is to prevent hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, glycosuria, and ketosis.
(1) The diabetic food exchange lists are the basis for a meal planning system
that was designed by a committee of the American Diabetes Association and The
American Dietetic Association. The system lists: meat exchange, bread exchange, fruit
and juice exchange, vegetable exchange, milk exchange and fat exchange. The number
of exchanges allowed is based upon the doctor's order and the dietitian's calculations.
Each diabetic diet should be individualized to meet the needs of the patient. The foods in
each exchange contain the same amount of calories, carbohydrate, protein, and fat per
portion size. Patients select from the exchange based upon their preference.
(2) The adequacy and possible deficiencies depend on the calories. A diet of
less than 1200 calories for women and less than 1500 calories for men would have a great
chance of being deficient in some nutrients.