(2) The standard menu mat, DA Form 2905-R, provides approximately 2168
calories. Caloric content of the diet can be increased by adding allowable breads,
vegetables, fruits, or skim milk. The diet is below the RDA in iron for males between the
ages of 11 and 22 and females 11 through 50 years of age.
k. Sodium Restricted Diet. The purpose of the sodium-restricted diet is to
promote loss of body fluids for patients who are unable to excrete the element normally
because of a pathological condition. The diet is indicated for the prevention, control, and
elimination of edema in congestive heart failure; cirrhosis of the liver with ascites; renal
disease complicated by either edema or hypertension; when administration of
adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) or steroids are prescribed, and for certain
endocrine disorders such as Cushing's disease and hypothyroidism.
(1) The sodium-restricted diets provide a specific sodium level or a range of
sodium. The diet order must indicate the specific sodium level or range desired either in
milligrams (mg) or mill equivalent (mEq). Terms such as "salt free" and "low sodium" are
(a) All foods on the 500 mg and 1000 mg sodium diets are prepared
without the addition of salt, and foods high in sodium are omitted. The 500 mg sodium diet
uses both sodium restricted bread and margarine. The 1000 mg sodium diet uses sodium
restricted margarine and regular bread. The 2000 mg sodium diet uses regular bread and
margarine, and regular cereal and desserts prepared with sodium.
(b) The standard menu mats, DA Form 2906-1-R (500 mg sodium diet),
DA Form 2906-2-R (1000 mg sodium diet), and DA Form 2906-3-R (2000 mg sodium
diet), provide between 2083 and 2554 calories.
(2) The diets are below the RDA in iron for males ages 11 to 22 and for
females ages 11 to 50. Thiamine is inadequate for males at all levels. Calcium and niacin
are also low for certain diets and ages.
5-12. PREPARING THE PATIENT FOR MEALS
a. As a nurse, your duties may include serving the diet trays at mealtime. For
many patients, mealtime is the high point of the day. The patients are more apt to have a
better appetite, eat more, and enjoy their food more if you prepare them for their meals
before the trays arrive.
Provide for elimination by offering the bedpan or urinal or assisting the
patient to the bathroom.
Assist the patient to wash hands and face as needed.
(3) Create an attractive and pleasant environment for eating. Remove
distracting articles such as an emesis basin or a urinal, and use a deodorizer to remove