Observe strict I & O.
Assist physician in catheterization or cystoscopy, as ordered.
c. Determine Stone Type.
Strain all urine.
Send stones to laboratory for identification.
d. Diet Modification.
Implement diet modifications as ordered.
Alter the pH of the urine to reduce stone formation.
To acidify urine, give citrus juices or ascorbic acid (vitamin C).
(b) To alkalinize urine, give sodium bicarbonate.
e. Prepare Patient for Surgery. Surgical intervention is indicated if the stone is
An obstruction that cannot be relieved.
Infection that is not responsive to treatment.
Damage to the urinary system.
a. Glomerulonephritis is an inflammatory disease of the kidneys. The
inflammatory process is thought to be a result of an immune system response. Antigen-
antibody reactions form molecule complexes that move through the circulatory system.
Some of these complexes become lodged in the glomeruli, initiating the inflammatory
response. The inflammation causes thickening of the glomerular filtration membrane,
resulting in scarring and loss of filtering surface. Fibrous tissue forms and the kidney
cannot function normally.
b. Repeated occurrences of mild glomerulonephritis may cause damage that
goes unchecked for years because the patient is asymptomatic. Even the insidious