2-26. NURSING IMPLICATIONS
a. Successful treatment of UTI involves a urine culture to identify the bacteria
present and a sensitivity test to determine the most effective antibiotic. Nursing
personnel must ensure that proper technique is used during collection of the specimen
in order to prevent contamination of the specimen. Contamination by other substances
will result in an inaccurate test.
b. Fluids should be encouraged in order to "flush" the system of the bacteria.
c. Frequent voiding should be encouraged to prevent urinary stasis.
d. I.V. fluids and antibiotics should be administered as ordered.
a. Urolithiasis is the presence of stones in the urinary system. These stones are
formed by the deposit of crystalline substances excreted in the urine.
Variations in sizes range from sand-like granules to stones the size of a
Most stones are combinations of calcium and phosphate.
(3) Different stone compositions develop in association with the pH of the
urine. For example:
Phosphate, oxalate, and carbonate stones form in alkaline urine.
(b) Uric acid, urate, and cystine stones form in acid urine.
b. Factors that precipitate stone formation include:
Vitamin deficiencies (especially vitamin A).