valuable tool in diagnosis of the condition. The following symptoms are significant and
should be recorded in the nursing assessment.
(1) Frequency. Voiding that occurs more often than usual (in comparison to
the patient's regular pattern).
Urgency. A strong desire (or urge) to urinate.
Hesitancy. Undo difficulty or delay in initiating voiding.
Incontinence. Involuntary loss of urine.
Stress incontinence. Intermittent leakage of urine is caused by sudden
Nocturia. Excessive urination at night.
(7) Enuresis. Involuntary voiding during sleep. Bedwetting is considered
abnormal after the age of three.
Dysuria. Painful or difficult urination.
Hematuria. The presence of blood in the urine.
(10) Retention. Accumulation of urine within the bladder caused by the
inability to urinate.
a. Urinalysis is the examination and analysis of urine. It is routinely performed
to detect abnormalities. The results of urinalysis are used by the physician in diagnosis
of urinary conditions.
b. Basic principles for collecting urine specimens include the following:
(1) The first morning urine specimen is the most concentrated and would be
required for tests where identification of specific elements is required (hormones, for
(2) Never leave urine standing at room temperature. It will begin to
breakdown, preventing accurate analysis.
(3) Urine specimens should be collected using "clean-catch" technique (see