m. Record the procedure and significant nursing observations in the patient's
2-13. RADIOLOGIC EXAMS
The two radiographic procedures used most frequently to aid in diagnosis of
urinary disorders are the kidneys, ureters, and bladder (KUB) and Intravenous
a. A flat plate X-ray of the abdomen to visualize the KUB.
It is used to show the size, shape, and positioning of the kidneys.
It serves as a baseline reference for follow-up X-rays.
It is used to visualize the size and position of urinary tract calculi
b. Intravenous pyelogram is the intravenous introduction of a contrast medium
that concentrates in the urine. This visualizes the KUB.
It is customary to keep the patient N.P.O. for 8-10 hours prior to
(2) Laxatives are given the evening prior to the exam to eliminate fecal
matter from the GI tract.
(3) The patient should not be overly hydrated, as this will dilute the contrast
medium and reduce visualization.
a. Cystoscopy is the direct visualization of the urethra and bladder by means of
a special device called a cystoscope. The lighted, tubular, scope is inserted into the
urethra. It is used to:
Inspect the urethra and bladder.
Remove calculi from the urethra, bladder, and ureters.
Allow insertion of catheters for removal of specimens.
b. Preparation is minimal and involves:
Administration of prescribed medications and anesthetic.