b. Enlargement of the mammary glands may occur in both sexes. This is
particularly noticeable about the third day of life. Breast secretion may also occur.
Swelling usually subsides in two to three weeks. The breast should not be squeezed; it
only increases the chances of infection and injuries to the tender tissue.
7-10. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE NEWBORN NEUROMUSCULAR SYSTEM
The newborn infant exhibits remarkable sensory development and an amazing
ability for self-organization in social interactions. The infant's muscles are firm and
resilient. He has the ability to contract when stimulated, but lacks the ability to control
them. He wiggles and stretches, but movements are uncoordinated.
a. Cephalo-Caudal (Head to Toe) in Development. Gross motor development
occurs first, followed by finer motor development. Reflex actions present at birth serve
the infant until neuromuscular development is improved. Absence of reflex activity often
indicates some form of brain damage.
b. Common Infant Reflexes. See figure 7-8.
Rooting. The infant turns his head to the side when the side of his face
(2) Moro reflex. The infant's total body responds to a startling event. His
arms extend out and up, legs flex toward abdomen. This reflex is usually lost by three
months of age.
(3) Tonic neck reflex. The infant assumes a fencer's position. His arm and
leg on one side is extended, the opposite side is flexed. His head is turned toward
extended side. This is not evident after four months of age.