Figure 7-6. Vernix caseosa.
b. Lanugo. This is a long, soft growth of fine hair on the infant's shoulders,
back, and forehead. It disappears early in postnatal life.
c. Mongolian Spots. These are blue-black colorations on the infant's lower
back, buttocks, and anterior trunk. They are often seen in infants of Black, Indian,
Mongolian, or Mediterranean ancestry. These spots occur less frequently in Caucasian
babies. The spots are not bruises nor are they associated with mental retardation.
They disappear in early childhood.
d. Jaundice. This is a yellow discoloration that may be seen in the infant's skin
or in the scera of the eye. Jaundice is caused by excessive amounts of free bilirubin in
the blood and tissue.
e. Petechiae. These are small, blue-red dots on the infant's body caused by
breakage of tiny capillaries. They may be seen on the face as a result of pressure
exerted on the head during birth. True petechiae does not blanch on pressure.
f. Milia. These are tiny sebaceous retention cysts. They appear as small white
or yellow dots and are common on the nose, forehead, and cheeks of the infant. They
are of pin head size and opalescent. Milia is due to blocked sweat and oil glands that
have not begun to function properly. They disappear spontaneously within a few
(1) These are small, reddened areas sometimes present on the infant's
eyelids, mid-forehead, and nape of the neck. They may be the result of local dilatation
of skin capillaries and abnormal thinness of the skin. They are sometimes called stork
bites or telangiectasia. These marks usually fade and disappear altogether. They may
be noticeable when the infant blushes, is extremely warm, or becomes excited.
(2) A Hemangioma or strawberry mark is a type of birthmark that is
characterized by a dark or bright red raised, rough surface. They do not develop for
several days. They may regress spontaneously or may even increase in size. Surgical
removal is not recommended. There is a "wait-and-see" attitude advocated before