(b) There is little subcutaneous fat; their face appears shrunken and
(c) The length and head size may be normal but the head looks really
big in comparison to the rest of the body.
(2) The underlying cause of SGA infants is an interruption in the normal
pattern of in utero growth of the fetal, placental, or of maternal origin. Factors
(a) Chromosomal abnormalities.
Alcohol consumption/narcotic abusers.
Inadequate prenatal care.
The following conditions occur more frequently in the SGA:
(a) Asphyxia. This tolerates labor poorly which is due to the
decreased of metabolic stores of carbohydrates. The SGA is often resuscitated at birth.
(b) Meconium aspiration. The fetus grasps amniotic fluid containing
meconium, or it occurs when the neonate takes his first breath. It may cause
atelectasis, pneumothorax, or pneumonitis.
(c) Hypoglycemia. This is most likely to occur from 12 to 48 hours
after birth but may also be noted within 6 hours if the infant is severely hypoxic. It may
lead to neurological damage.
Hypothermia. This is due to lack of subcutaneous fat.
(e) Polycythemia. This is frequently seen when SGA is due to
(f) Congenital anomalies. The genitourinary and cardiovascular
systems are most common problem area.
NOTE: Congenital anomalies are defects or disorders present in the infant when born.
Nursing care considerations.
(a) Monitor blood sugars according to local policy.