PROCEDURES IN GENITOURINARY SURGERY
Section I. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE GENITOURINARY ORGANS
The urinary organs in the male or female include two kidneys that excrete urine,
two ureters that convey urine from the kidneys to the bladder, which in turn serves as a
reservoir for the reception of urine, and a urethra through which the urine is discharged
from the body. In the male, the reproductive system consists of the testes, vas
deferens, seminal vesicles, penis, urethra, prostate, and bulbourethral glands. These
organs have a direct or indirect function in the process of procreation. The reproductive
system in the female has been discussed in lesson 2.
a. The kidneys are situated in the retroperitoneal space on the muscles of the
posterior abdominal wall, one on each side of the vertebral column at the level of the
twelfth thoracic to third lumbar vertebrae. Their position may vary slightly, but usually
the right kidney lies lower than the left because of the space occupied by the liver. The
placement of the kidneys is shown, in figure 3-1.
Figure 3-1. Male urinary organs in relation to other structures.