symphysis pubis and anterior of the vagina. The external urethral orifice (urinary
meatus) lies anterior to the vaginal opening and posterior to the clitoris.
MALE REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS
a. The male reproductive organs (see figure 3-5) include the two testes,
epididymides, seminal ducts (vas deferens), seminal vesicles, Cowper's glands, and
ejaculatory ducts, as well as the single reproductive organs of the prostate, penis, and
urethra. The scrotum is located behind the base of the penis and in front of the anus.
This loose sac contains and supports the testes, the epididymides, and some of the
spermatic cord. The two sides of the scrotum are separated from each other by a
median raphe. Within the scrotum there are two cavities or sacs that are lined with
smooth and glistening tissue, known as the tunica vaginalis. Normally, a small amount
of clear fluid is contained in the tunica vaginalis. The condition known as hydrocele
denotes an abnormal accumulation of this fluid.
b. The testes manufacture the spermatozoa and also contain a specialized cell
(Leydig) that produces the male hormone. Each testis consists of many tubules, in
which the sperm are formed, surrounded by a dense capsule of connective tissue. The
tubules coalesce and continue into the adjacent epididymis where the sperm mature
and are stored.
c. The epididymis is a long narrow organ that lies along the posterior border of
each testis. It connects the testis with the seminal duct. The vas deferens (ductus
deferens, or seminal duct) is a distal continuation of the epididymis. Each is the
excretory duct of the testis and conveys the sperm from the epididymis to the seminal
d. The vas deferens lies within the spermatic cord in the inguinal region. The
spermatic cord also contains the veins, arteries, lymphatics, nerves, and surrounding
connective tissue (cremaster muscle) that give support to the testes.
e. The seminal vesicles are structures that unite with the vas deferens on either
side. The terminal portion of each vas deferens is called the ejaculatory duct, which
passes between the lobes of the prostate gland and opens into the prostatic urethra.
f. The prostate gland is an accessory sex organ. It lies just below the bladder in
front of the rectum and surrounds the prostatic portion of the urethra. The entire
prostate gland, which consists of five lobes, is surrounded by a fibrous capsule, through
which the ejaculatory ducts enter to pass through the gland. Behind the prostatic
capsule, there is a fibrous sheath that separates the prostate gland and the seminal
vesicles from the rectum. The lobes of the gland secrete a highly alkaline fluid that
dilutes the testicular secretion as it comes from the ejaculatory ducts. The prostate
gland receives its blood supply from the internal pudendal, inferior vesical, and