(e) Circumduction. Movement in which the bone circumscribes a
pointed cone. The base of the cone is distal to the joint; the apex is the joint.
Rotation. The part turns about its own axis without changing
(g) Pronation. To turn the palm of the hand (from the normal
anatomical position) posteriorly.
(h) Supination. To turn the palm of the hand from posterior to anterior
(thus regaining the normal anatomical position).
Inversion. To turn the sole of the foot inward.
Eversion. To turn the sole of the foot outward.
Section IV. COMMON FRACTURES
1-14. GENERAL CLASSIFICATIONS
A fracture is the breaking of any part, especially a bone. The abbreviation for
fracture is Fx. Fractures are generally classified as simple or compound. A fracture is
W (closed) if the overlying skin is intact; it is compound (open) when there is an external
wound leading to the break of the bone.
1-15. SPECIFIC CLASSIFICATIONS
Fractures are further classified by position, number of fragments, and direction of
fracture line. A transverse fracture is usually a straight-line break at right angles to the
long axis of the bone. A spiral fracture has an S-shape fracture line. The fracture line
of a longitudinal fracture roughly parallels the long axis of the bone. An oblique fracture
extends diagonally to the long axis of the bone. With an impacted fracture, the broken
ends or fragments are jammed firmly together. In the case of a greenstick fracture, one
side of the bone is broken and the other side bent. A comminuted fracture is one in
which the bone is crushed or splintered into three or more fragments. A stellate fracture
is a fracture with a central point of injury from which radiate numerous fissures. A
buttonhole fracture is a fracture in which the bone is perforated by a missile. A
compression fracture is produced by compression and usually results in a decrease of
the size of the bone.