d. Anesthesia. Local anesthesia is usually administered by the examiner. If
general anesthesia has been administered, the patient will be unable to control his
respiration or cooperate in assuming or maintaining certain positions.
e. Preparation of the Intended for Injection. The injection site is prepared by
the examiner or by a designated individual under his direct supervision, usually just prior
to making the injection.
The principal solution is the contrast-producing agent. Usually, this consists of
one of the sterile aqueous solutions of 60 percent to 76 percent diatrizoate meglumine
injection, or iotalmate injection. The choice of an intravascular contrast agent depends
on its opacity, osmolality, viscosity, lack of toxicity, and expense. The substitution of
meglumine (methylglucamine) for most or all of the sodium of the earlier tri-iodized
contrast compounds has resulted in greater patient comfort and less induced, localized,
and systemic absorption. The contrast solution must be clear of sediment, sterile, and
(unless otherwise specified) maintained at body temperature prior to examination. In
some instances, the specialist may be required to fill the syringe(s) with the contrast
solution. It is imperative that he use sterile technique and make certain that the right
solution goes into the right syringe. This is of vital importance.
There are many other types of contrast-producing agents. Consult a
practicing radiologist for the desired types of contrast-producing agents.
MATERIALS AND APPARATUS
These items are frequently made up into special sets or layouts for specific
procedures (for example: angiocardiography, venography of the lower extremities,
cardiac catheterization). Representative items in this category may include any of the
a. Syringes. Luer-lok type, number and sizes are required.
(1) Needle-stopcock unit, type suited to the particular requirements or the
preference of the examiner.
Needles of the particular gauge, length, or design for solution transfer.
c. Tubing. Sterile pieces of tubing are required in suitable calibers and lengths.