(4) Selective catheterization or direct angiography. This is a procedure
wherein a contrast solution is introduced directly into specific chambers of the heart of
particular blood channels (via a catheter in vivo) and the structures are x-rayed during
(5) Cerebral arteriography. Cerebral arteriography, also known as arterial
encephalography or cerebral angiography, is the radiographic visualization and study of
the intracranial arterial channels during induced radiopacification.
(6) Intra-osseous venography. Intra-osseous venography is a special
procedure for the radiographic investigation of selected venous pathways during
radiopacification following the introduction of a contrast medium via the intramedullary
or intraspongious route.
(7) Portal venography. Portal venography is the radiographic examination
of the venous circulation in the spleen and related blood channels during induced
THE X-RAY SPECIALIST'S ROLE
The x-ray specialist must have an integrated concept of the essential elements
and procedural mechanics common to the most frequent angiographic examinations.
The importance of this cannot be overemphasized. Only the basic elements of the
techniques in the different procedures are described. All of these procedures are
subject to variation since each patient undergoing an angiographic examination is
regarded as a special case. Except in emergencies, all angiographic examinations are
scheduled in accordance with the established clinical procedure.
To broaden his knowledge, the specialist should refer to pertinent texts
and professional journals dealing with angiography.
a. Premedication. Premedication of the patient will depend upon clinical
b. Control of Eating and Drinking Prior to the Examination. This is
governed largely by the type of examination and the judgment of the examiner.
c. Check Laboratory Results. Check laboratory results for blood urea
nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr), hemotocrit /hemoglobin (Hct/Hgb), prothrombin time
(PT), partial thromboplastin time (PTT), platelets, etc. The values are checked to
determine any possible reaction to iodide compounds even though non-ionic contrasts
are primarily used.