Figure 1-3, A. The sagittal plane. B. The horizontal plane. C. The frontal plane.
a. Superior, Inferior. Superior means above. Inferior means below.
b. Anterior, Posterior.
(1) Anterior (or ventral) refers to the front of the body.
(2) Posterior (or dorsal) refers to the back of the body.
c. Medial, Lateral. Medial means toward or nearer the midline of the body.
Lateral means away from the midline or toward the side of the body.
d. Superficial, Deep. Superficial means closer to the surface of the body.
Deep means toward the center of the body or body part.
e. Proximal, Distal. Proximal and distal are terms applied specifically to the
limbs. Proximal means nearer to the shoulder joint or the hip joint. Distal means further
away from the shoulder joint or the hip joint. Sometimes proximal and distal are used to
identify the "beginning" and "end" of the gut tract--that portion closer to the stomach
being proximal while that further away being distal.