19. The regions of the vertebral column and the number of vertebrae in each are as
a. Cervical (neck) region, 7.
b. Thoracic (chest) region, 12.
c. Lumbar (low back) region, 5.
d. Sacrum, fusion of 5.
20. a. Intervertebral discs hold the bodies of adjacent vertebrae together, are fibrous
rings with soft centers, allow adjacent vertebral bodies to move on one another, and are
part of plane-type joints between vertebrae.
b. Ligaments are dense FCT structures extending from bone to bone (along the
vertebral column from the base of the skull to the coccyx). (para 4-13a(3))
21. The thoracic (rib) cage consists of the sternum (manubrium, body, and xiphoid
process), 12 pairs of ribs, and 12 thoracic vertebrae. The thoracic cage provides
protection for vital organs within the thorax. It also allows the movements of breathing.
22. The two major subdivisions of the skull are as follows:
a. Cranium: Encases and protects brain.
b. Facial skeleton: Involved with beginning of digestive and respiratory tracts;
encases and protects the special sense organs (eyes, ears, etc.). (para 4-13c)
End of Lesson 4