e. Of the many hormones produced by the anterior pituitary gland, we will
(1) Somatotrophic hormone (growth hormone). The target organs of this
hormone are the growing structures of the body. This hormone influences such
structures to grow.
(2) ACTH (adrenocorticotrophic hormone). This hormone of the anterior
pituitary gland stimulates the cortex of the suprarenal (adrenal) gland to produce its
hormones. We will later see that the hormones of the suprarenal cortex are involved
with anti-inflammatory reactions of the body.
(3) Thyrotropin (TSH). This hormone stimulates the thyroid gland
to produce its hormones.
(4) Luteinizing hormone (LH). LH stimulates ovulation and luteinization of
ovarian follicles in females and promotes testosterone production in males.
(5) Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). FSH stimulates ovarian follicle
growth in females and stimulates spermatogenesis in males.
(6) Prolactin. Prolactin stimulates milk production and maternal behavior in
Section III. THE THYROID GLAND
The thyroid gland is in the neck region just below the larynx and surrounds the
a. The right and left thyroid lobes are the masses on either side of the trachea.
The isthmus is found across the front of the trachea and connects the two lobes.
b. Each lobe of the thyroid gland is supplied by arteries from above and below
(superior and inferior thyroid arteries).
The primary hormone of the thyroid gland is thyroxin. Thyroxin affects the basal
metabolic rate (BMR), the level of activity of the body. Since iodine is a necessary ele-
ment in the production of thyroxin, one can observe malformations of the thyroid gland