CALL FOR HELP
If the casualty does not respond (unconscious), attempt to obtain additional
medical help. Do not leave the casualty to obtain help.
a. If you are alone with the casualty, shout for help. In the tactical setting, this
would not be practical and other methods of signaling should be considered.
b. If another person is available, and if a radio or telephone is available, have
the person use the radio or telephone to summon medical help. If you are alone, use
the radio or telephone to call for help and return to the casualty and begin medical help.
c. If someone who is not medically trained is available, send him to get
additional medical help.
d. If you are in a hospital and find an unconscious patient, summon help using
available systems. These systems may include bells, lights, verbal calls for assistance,
codes to alert medical personnel, and intercoms.
CHECK FOR SPINAL INJURY
Check the casualty for a spinal injury. If the casualty has a spinal injury,
minimize any additional movement of the casualty (using the jaw-thrust method of
opening the airway rather than the head-tilt/chin-lift method, for example). Moving a
casualty with a fractured spine may cause additional damage to the spinal cord, which
could result in paralysis or even death. If you suspect a spinal injury, perform your
efforts as though you knew that a fracture of the spine were present. Do not try to
straighten a fractured spine. Signs of spinal injury include:
a. Bruises and/or swelling over the spinal area.
b. Casualty lying in an abnormal (deformed) position.
c. Fluid draining from one or both ears.
POSITION THE CASUALTY
Position the casualty flat on his back and on a hard surface. Rescue breathing is
most effective when the casualty is lying on his back. Chest compressions (part of
CPR) are not effective unless the casualty is lying on his back and lying on a hard
a. If the casualty is lying on a bed or cot, remove the casualty from the bed or
cot and place him on the floor or ground. An alternative is to place a bed board or long
backboard between the casualty's back and the bed or cot.