INITIATE RESCUE BREATHING ON AN ADULT
REMOVE CASUALTY FROM ANY IMMEDIATE DANGER
If you see a possible casualty, you must evaluate the person to determine if
rescue breathing should be initiated. Before you begin the evaluation procedure,
however, evaluate your surroundings to determine the appropriate care for those
surroundings. If you are in the "care under fire" phase of care, then opening the airway
and controlling bleeding are your primary concerns; rescue breathing will not be initiated
at this time. If other danger exists in the non-tactical environment, the hazards must be
assessed for threat to life. If a major life threat exists, then moving the patient prior to
further evaluation and treatment would be necessary. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation is
not considered an appropriate treatment under most battlefield conditions because most
of these patients will be traumatized in manner that would not support life without
immediate and extensive surgery.
The steps for evaluating a casualty and initiating rescue breathing are the
same as for initiating cardiopulmonary resuscitation. These are also the
same steps normally used to evaluate any casualty.
CHECK FOR RESPONSIVENESS
Establish responsiveness by using the AVPU system. Check to see if the patient
is alert (A), responsive to verbal commands (V), responds to pain (P), or is
unresponsive (U). Establishing responsiveness will usually take between 4 to 10
If the casualty was injured in a motor vehicle accident, in a parachuting
accident, in a diving accident, by a fall, by a blow to the back, or by
some other violent incident that could result in injury to the back, take
proper spinal precautions in treating the casualty. Be careful not to
violently shake or move any patient. This will help to prevent
aggravation of any injuries that may be present.
a. If the casualty answers, he is conscious and breathing, continue your
examination of the casualty and render whatever aid is needed. (Evaluation and
treatment procedures for injuries are presented in other 91W10 subcourses.)
b. If the casualty does not respond, he is unconscious. Perform the evaluation
and treatment procedures given in the following paragraphs.