PERFORM CARDIOPULMONARY RESUSCITATION ON A CHILD OR INFANT
CHECK FOR RESPONSIVENESS
Rescue breathing and cardiopulmonary resuscitation efforts must be modified if
the casualty is an infant (under 1 year of age) or a child (1 to 14 years of age, as
defined by the onset of puberty, or presence of secondary sex characteristics.). As with
an adult, your first efforts are to determine if the casualty is responsive (conscious).
Tap the casualty on the shoulder or gently shake the casualty.
a. If the casualty responds, determine if the child or infant is in need of aid.
Check for breathing problems, bleeding, fractures, other injuries, and illness.
b. If the casualty is not responsive (unconscious) or if the casualty is conscious
but is not breathing adequately (poor air exchange or complete blockage), proceed to
initiate rescue breathing and, if necessary, perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
OPEN THE AIRWAY
a. Call For Help. Call for assistance. You can do this at the same time you are
positioning the casualty. If someone responds to your request for aid, send him to
obtain professional medical help while you perform rescue breathing or CPR. Do not
leave the casualty in order to obtain help.
b. Position the Casualty. Lay the casualty on his back on a firm, flat surface
and out of danger. When moving an infant or child, always support the head and neck
to prevent rolling and twisting. Position his head so that his face is up and his nose
openings are straight up over his ear openings. This provides a slight head-tilt which
will help to open the airway, but without hyper-extending the neck as does the head-
tilt/chin-lift method used with adults. If an infant's head is tilted too far back, his trachea
may collapse because the tracheal rings are not sufficiently developed.
c. Open the Airway. Open the casualty's airway using the modified head-
tilt/chin-lift unless a head or spinal injury is suspected. If you suspect a spinal or head
injury, use the modified jaw-thrust. The likelihood of a spinal or head injury is great if a
child or infant is found at the scene of an accident.
(a) Kneel at the side of the casualty.
(b) Place two or three fingers of your hand that is closest to the
casualty's head on his forehead. In older children, apply enough pressure to tilt the
head back slightly. In infants, the fingers keep the head in proper position.