(a) Natural cheese. Natural cheese is made by coagulating milk through
the use of a starter to produce lactic acid, then eliminating the liquid portion by cooking,
draining, and washing the curd. After the whey is removed, the curd is consolidated
(b) Processed cheese. Processed cheese is manufactured by grinding,
mixing, and heating one or more types of natural cheese and an emulsifying agent into
a homogeneous mass. Acidifying agents, cream, water, salt, and artificial coloring may
also be added.
(3) Plain condensed milk. This is whole or skim milk from which a portion of
the water has been removed under vacuum.
(4) Sweetened condensed milk. Essentially, this is plain condensed milk, to
which sugar has been added.
(5) Evaporated milk. Essentially, this is he same as plain condensed milk,
except that it is sterilized with heat.
(6) Dry milk (powdered milk). This is milk from which a major portion of the
moisture has been removed. In contrast to fresh whole milk with approximately 87
percent moisture and evaporated milk with approximately 74 percent, dry milk normally
has less than 2.5 percent moisture.
1-37. INTRODUCTION TO BUTTER
The military purchases many forms of dairy products in addition to milk. One of
these is butter. Butter is generally marketed wholesale according to its score or grade.
These scores or grades are given to the butter by competent judges who make detailed
sensory evaluations of the product. Although demands for flavor, body, texture, degree
of saltiness, shades of color, and kinds of packaging may vary in different sections of
the country, the basis for evaluating, scoring, and judging butter remains fairly uniform
from one section to another. Because butter is a relatively expensive dairy product,
knowledge of what constitutes good quality is important to assure that the Government
gets proper value for the money it spends on this product.
Butter is made from milk and cream, with or without common salt, with or without
coloring matter, and contains not less than 80 percent by weight of butterfat. Cream
used in making butter is separated from milk produced by healthy cows.
a. Pasteurizing. The cream is pasteurized at a temperature of not less than
165F (74C) and held continuously in a vat at such temperature for not less than 30
minutes; or pasteurized at a temperature of not less than 185F (85C) for not less than
15 seconds. Proper agitation of the cream during pasteurization is important. The