e. Coloring. The coloring used in frozen desserts should have a delicate,
attractive color which suggests or is readily associated with the corresponding flavor.
f. Emulsifiers. These are substances added to the frozen dessert mix to
suspend the solids as minute globules. Emulsifiers are used in ice cream mainly to
improve the whipping quality of the mix. They also aid in the production of a drier ice
cream with a smoother body and texture.
g. Stabilizers. These are substances added to frozen dessert mix to hold the
emulsion in suspension. Stabilizers are used to prevent the formation of objectionable,
large ice crystals in the frozen dessert. Their primary function is to prevent a coarse
texture in the product. Stabilizers are of animal origin or vegetable origin and they
increase viscosity without affecting the freezing point of frozen desserts.
h. Salt. Table salt is not commonly used but may be used in small amounts in
custards and other frozen desserts to improve the flavor.
i. Water. Water provides bulk, dissolves other ingredients, and acts as a
j. Acids. Acids are used only in ices and sherbets and cause the tart flavor in
these products. Citric acid is most commonly used. Other acids are ascorbic, lactic,
k. Air (Overrun). Another important ingredient of ice cream is air. Without the
incorporation of air, the ice cream mix would freeze as a solid mass as hard as an ice
cube. The addition of air into the mix is accomplished during the freezing process. This
process, known as overrun, increases the volume of the product. The usual range of
overrun is from 80 to 100 percent. Thus, 1 gallon of ice cream mix will make about 2
gallons of finished ice cream. To protect against excessive addition of air, Federal
Specification EE-I-116 specifies the minimum weight for a gallon of ice cream. Ice
cream with excessive overrun will not meet the minimum weight requirements. It will
also lack body and will melt rapidly.
1-33. MANUFACTURE OF ICE CREAM
Steps in the manufacture of ice cream include receiving and storing the raw
ingredients, combining and mixing the ingredients, pasteurizing the mix, homogenizing
the mix, cooling the mix, aging the mix, adding flavoring, freezing, adding bulk flavoring,
packaging, hardening, and storing the end item product.
a. Raw Ingredients. The end item quality is dependent upon the raw
ingredients used for manufacture. They must be selected, handled, and stored in such
a manner so as to produce a high quality product.