d. Urinary Bladder. The cholinergic blockers produce urinary retention.
e. Heart. Increased heart rate is the effect produced on the heart by the
f. Bronchi. The cholinergic blockers dilate the bronchi.
10-3. CLINICAL USES OF THE CHOLINERGIC BLOCKERS
The clinical uses of these drugs are based upon their normal pharmacological
actions. Their most common clinical uses are listed below:
a. Antispasmodics. Antispasmodics are used to slow the motility of the
gastrointestinal (GI) tract and reduce gastric secretions. Antispasmodics are commonly
prescribed with other types of medications for patients who have ulcers or other GI
b. Mydriatics/Cycloplegics. These agents are used to produce pupil dilation
(mydriasis) and to paralyze the muscles of accommodation (cycloplegia). In other
purposes are commonly used following ocular surgery and for certain types of eye
c. Antiparkinsonism Agents. These drugs are used to treat Parkinsonism, a
condition characterized by excessive cholinergic activity in the brain. This condition
results in an inability to perform fine motor movements.
d. Cold Preparations. Many over-the-counter and legend cold preparations
contain cholinergic blocking agents. These cholinergic blockers help to dry secretions
(that is, help to "dry" a runny nose).
e. Antidote for Nerve Gas Poisoning. Some cholinergic blocking drugs are
used as antidotes for persons who have been poisoned by nerve gases (irreversible
cholinesterase inhibitors). Certain cholinergic blocking agents are also used as
antidotes for certain insecticides (irreversible cholinesterase inhibitors).
f. Treatment of Bradycardia (Slow Heart Rate). Atropine sulfate, a
cholinergic blocker, is sometimes administered to a patient following cardiac arrest to
increase the heart rate. By blocking cholinergic innervation to the heart, sympathetic
nerves are allowed to override and increase the rate of the heart.
g. Preoperative Medication. Certain cholinergic blockers are administered to
patients immediately before their undergoing a surgical procedure. In this case, the
cholinergic blockers help to dry secretions in the mucous membranes.