b. Embolus. If the thrombus becomes dislodged from the wall of the vessel, it
becomes an embolus. The usual treatment for an embolus is anticoagulant therapy in
an effort to decrease the possibility of any future clotting. If necessary, certain enzymes
may be administered to the patient in order to dissolve the existing clot. Treatment of
an embolus is nearly impossible until it becomes an embolism. When the embolism has
been identified, the treatment usually involves bed rest, anticoagulant therapy, and the
possible administration of fibrinolytic enzymes.
Vascular disorders comprise some of the most common disorders in humans.
Usually symptoms of vascular disorders are not seen until the condition reaches a point
where it is considered serious. Several vascular disorders are discussed below:
a. Arteriosclerosis. A loss of elasticity or hardening of the arterial walls
characterizes arteriosclerosis. The result is a decrease in the ability of these arteries to
change their diameter. A complication that usually accompanies arteriosclerosis is
atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is a condition in which lipid (fat) deposits form on the
inside of the arteries causing a decrease in the flow of blood through the arteries. Both
these conditions show a higher incidence in diabetics and in overweight individuals.
Surgery and antihyperlipidemic drugs are used to treat these conditions.
b. Varicose Veins. A varicose vein is a condition that is probably because of
excessively prolonged pooling of blood in the lower extremities (for example: legs).
Varicose veins are especially common in people who are required to stand for
prolonged periods of time with little or no exercise.
c. Peripheral Vascular Disease. Peripheral vascular disease is
characterized by vasoconstriction of the arteries (especially in the extremities).
Decreased blood flow to the extremities and corresponding hypothermia are some of
the usual signs of this condition.
BONE MARROW DEPRESSION
Bone marrow depression is a condition characterized by a decrease in the
function of the bone marrow that leads to a reduction in the cellular components of the
blood. The overall effect of bone marrow depression is anemia and susceptibility to
infection. The most common cause of bone marrow depression seems to be the toxicity
of drugs. If detected early, the reversal of the disease may be accomplished by the
removal of the causative agent (for example, the drug).