d. Nervous System.
(1) Altered sensation caused by prolonged pressure and continual
stimulation of nerves. Usually pain is felt at first and then sensation is altered, and the
patient no longer senses the pain.
Peripheral nerve palsy.
e. Gastrointestinal System.
(1) Disturbance in appetite caused by the slowing of gastrointestinal tract,
secondary immobility, and decreased activity resulting in anorexia.
Altered digestion and utilization of nutrients resulting in constipation.
Altered protein metabolism.
f. Integumentary System. Risk of skin breakdown, which leads to necrosis
and ulceration of tissues, especially on bony areas.
g. Urinary System.
(1) Renal calculi (kidney stones) caused by stagnation of urine in the renal
pelvis and the high levels of urinary calcium.
Urinary tract infections caused by urinary stasis that favors the growth of
Decreased bladder muscle tone resulting in urinary retention.
(1) Increased risk of electrolyte imbalance. An absence of weight on the
skeleton and immobility causes protein to be broken down faster than it is made,
resulting in a negative nitrogen balance.
Decreased metabolic rate.
Altered exchange of nutrients and gases.
(1) Decrease in self-concept and increase in sense of powerlessness due to
inability to move purposefully and dependence on someone for assistance with simple