(2) Alcohol may be ordered to be taken internally. Only alcohol, USP
(ethanol, ethyl alcohol), is to be taken internally. Receipts and expenditures of ethyl
alcohol must be accounted for in the narcotic and controlled drug register.
(1) When the alcohols are used to disinfect metal instruments, an antirust
agent (such as sodium nitrite) should be put into the solution. Ethyl alcohol produces
more rusting than does isopropyl alcohol.
(2) Both alcohols are flammable in concentrations over 50 percent;
therefore, these solutions should not be used in the presence of open flames, nor when
there is danger of electrostatic sparks.
Isopropyl alcohol is not to be given internally.
(4) Both alcohols should be kept covered when not being used, because the
alcohols will evaporate rapidly if left in an open container.
e. Supply. Both ethyl and isopropyl alcohol are ordinarily supplied in quarts.
a. Action and Uses.
(1) Benzalkonium chloride (Zephiran) has either a bacteriostatic or a
bactericidal action, depending upon the concentration of the solution. Both the aqueous
solution and the tincture act as a bactericide when used in a concentration of 1:1000.
(2) Benzalkonium chloride is used to prepare the skin for surgery, and to
prepare an injection site. It is also used to disinfect surgical instruments and
(1) An antirust agent should be used when benzalkonium chloride is being
used for the disinfection of instruments.
(2) Care must be taken to carefully rinse articles that have been washed
before soaking them in benzalkonium chloride, since soap and other anionic detergents
will inactivate it.
Benzalkonium chloride is not to be taken internally.