lotion should be shaken thoroughly before being applied, and it should be patted on the
skin area to be treated. Calamine lotion is available in 53-ml (1.8-fl. oz.) and 118-ml
(4-fl. oz.) sizes.
2-17. COMPOUND BENZOIN TINCTURE
Compound benzoin tincture is used as a protective agent (demulcent) to alleviate
irritation of the skin or mucous membranes. When mixed with glycerin and water, it is
used for bedsores, cutaneous ulcers, fissures of the lips or anus, and cracked nipples.
On sugar, it may be used for throat and bronchial infection. When it is mixed with
boiling water, the vapor may be inhaled as a soothing expectorant for croup and acute
laryngitis. Compound benzoin tincture is supplied in 1-pt containers.
2-18. HYDROCORTISONE CREAM
Hydrocortisone cream is used topically to suppress the inflammatory response in
numerous skin diseases. The antibiotic neomycin is included in some preparations to
protect against bacterial infections that might be favored by this suppression and to
clear up infections secondary to the inflammation.
2-19. SODIUM FLUORESCEIN APPLICATORS
Sodium fluorescein is an ophthalmic diagnostic aid with which damaged parts of
the cornea appear green and foreign bodies are surrounded by a green ring. A yellow
hue indicates loss of substance on the conjunctiva. Merely dipping the paper strips into
the lacrimal fluid releases an adequate amount of this highly soluble drug.
Section IV. ANTACIDS
Antacids are agents used to neutralize excess hydrochloric acid in the stomach,
especially to treat ulcers. Antacids are often abused; many people unwisely take
antacids at the first sign of gastrointestinal (GI) discomfort.
a. Systemic Antacids. Systemic antacids are those which are readily absorbed
from the GI tract and thus produce changes throughout the body. Prolonged use or
overdose of systemic antacids, such as sodium bicarbonate, may injure the health.
Forexample, a predisposition to kidney stones may result. Systemic antacids can cause
systemic alkalosis, a potentially dangerous change in the acid-base balance of the body
in which the base predominates.
b. Nonsystemic Antacids. Fortunately, not all antacids are systemic. A
nonsystemic antacid contains a cation, for example, aluminum, calcium, or magnesium,