repeated is NOT repeated. For example, VV is NOT used for 10 (5+5) because X is 10

and LL is NOT used for 100 (50+50) because C = 100).

c. **Smaller Numerals Before Larger**. When a smaller numeral placed before a

larger one, the smaller value is subtracted from the larger one. Only one number can

be subtracted in this way. Thus, IV (5 - 1) = 4; IX (10 - 1) = 9; and XC (100 - 10) = 90

are correct, but 3 is never written IIV.

d. **Smaller Numerals After Larger**. A smaller numeral placed after a larger one

is added to the larger number. For example, VIII = (5+3) = 8 ; XIII = (10+3) = 13; CLX =

(100+50+10) = 160.

e. **Smaller Numeral Between Two Larger**. A smaller numeral between two

larger ones is ALWAYS subtracted from the larger numeral which follows it as CXL (100

+ [50-10]) = 140; MCMLXXVI (1000 + [1000-100] + 50 + 10 + 10 + 5 + 1) = 1976.

f. **The Use of "j." **As a precaution against error, the last "i" may be replaced by

a "j." When this method is used, 3 would be written as iij.

g. **Table of Roman Numerals**. Table 1-6 shows examples of Roman numerals

and their equivalents.

ss

=

1/2

x

=

10

xx

=

20

li

=

51

i

=

1

xi

=

11

xxi

=

21

lix

=

59

ii

=

2

xii

=

12

xxii

=

22

lx

=

60

iii

=

3

xiii

=

13

xxiii

=

23

lxx

=

70

iv

=

4

xiv

=

14

xxiv

=

24

lxxx

=

80

v

=

5

xv

=

15

xxv

=

25

xc

=

90

vi

=

6

xvi

=

16

xxvi

=

26

c

=

100

vii

=

7

xvii

=

17

xxvii

=

27

ci

=

101

vii

=

8

xviii

=

18

xxviii

=

28

cxxi

=

121

ix

=

9

xix

=

19

xxix

=

29

d

=

500

m

=

1000

Table 1-6. Examples of Roman numerals.

h. **Number After Modified Noun**. When a number expressed in Roman

numerals is used to modify a noun, the number follows the noun. The noun is likely to

be a unit of the apothecary system or a unit of dosage. For example, "gr ii" would be

interpreted as "two grains" and "caps i" would mean "one capsule."

MD0913

1-6

Integrated Publishing, Inc. |