(2) Naloxone may precipitate acute withdrawal symptoms in clients
(3) Repeated doses of naloxone may be necessary since the duration of
action of some narcotics (that is, methadone) may exceed that of naloxone.
(4) Naloxone is not effective against respiratory depressions that is, to
(5) Naloxone will not produce tolerance nor cause physical or psychological
d. Supply. Naloxone is available in 1-ml ampules containing 0.4 mg of
Section V. NONADDICTIVE ANALGESICS AND ANTIPYRETICS
a. Analgesics. An analgesic is a drug that relieves pain without causing a loss
of consciousness; nonaddictive analgesics raise the threshold to pain stimuli. The
threshold is the degree of intensity a stimulus must have in order to be perceived. (A
local anesthetic is not considered an analgesic; it works by preventing the conduction of
nerve impulses, which would be perceived as pain by the CNS. A general anesthetic is
not an analgesic; it works by stopping consciousness.) Some analgesics relieve only
specific types of pain, for example, integumental pain, characterized by its sharp,
piercing quality, or visceral pain, which is dull, burning, and aching, and tends to
depress the person.
b. Antipyretics. An antipyretic is an agent that is capable of lowering
abnormally high body temperatures. That is, antipyretics are useful in relieving fever.
They do not greatly affect the body temperature when it is already normal. Most of the
nonaddictive analgesics have antipyretic effects.
c. Anti-inflammatory Agents. Many of the nonaddictive analgesics also have
anti-inflammatory effects. That is, they reduce inflammation occurring in such maladies
as rheumatoid arthritis and rheumatic fever.
A common name for aspirin is ASA (acetylsalicylic acid).
a. Action and Uses. Aspirin is the drug of choice when a mild analgesic is
needed. It is useful in treating headache, neuralgia (paroxysmal pain, extending along