a. Mons Pubis. This is the fatty rounded area overlying the symphysis pubis
and covered with thick coarse hair.
b. Labia Majora. The labia majora run posteriorly from the mons pubis. They
are the 2 elongated hair covered skin folds. They enclose and protect other external
c. Labia Minora. The labia minora are 2 smaller folds enclosed by the labia
majora. They protect the opening of the vagina and urethra.
d. Vestibule. The vestibule consists of the clitoris, urethral meatus, and the
(1) The clitoris is a short erectile organ at the top of the vaginal vestibule
whose function is sexual excitation.
(2) The urethral meatus is the mouth or opening of the urethra. The urethra
is a small tubular structure that drains urine from the bladder.
The vaginal introitus is the vaginal entrance.
e. Perineum. This is the skin covered muscular area between the vaginal
opening (introitus) and the anus. It aids in constricting the urinary, vaginal, and anal
opening. It also helps support the pelvic contents.
f. Bartholin's Glands (Vulvovaginal or Vestibular Glands). The Bartholin's
glands lie on either side of the vaginal opening. They produce a mucoid substance,
which provides lubrication for intercourse.
The blood supply is derived from the uterine and ovarian arteries that extend
from the internal iliac arteries and the aorta. The increased demands of pregnancy
necessitate a rich supply of blood to the uterus. New, larger blood vessels develop to
accommodate the need of the growing uterus. The venous circulation is accomplished
via the internal iliac and common iliac vein.
1-6. FACTS ABOUT THE MENSTRUAL CYCLE
Menstruation is the periodic discharge of blood, mucus, and epithelial cells from
the uterus. It usually occurs at monthly intervals throughout the reproductive period,
except during pregnancy and lactation, when it is usually suppressed.
a. The menstrual cycle is controlled by the cyclic activity of follicle stimulating
hormone (FSH) and LH from the anterior pituitary and progesterone and estrogen from