(e) That backaches may indicate a kidney or bladder infection. The
patient must inform the physician of backache problems. Backaches should be
b. Muscle Cramps.
Muscle cramps are caused by:
(a) Compression of nerves supplying the lower extremities due to the
(b) Reduced level of diffusible serum calcium or elevation of serum
phosphorus in the bloodstream.
Fatigue, chilling, or tense body posture.
Muscle cramps are not considered a serious condition, but they may be
Nursing interventions consists of advising the patient to:
(a) Avoid fatigue and cold legs.
(b) Eat a diet with adequate calcium or prescribed calcium.
(c) Avoid drinking more than one (1) quart of milk per day. More than
one quart of milk per day will create too much phosphorus in the system.
(d) Take the prescribed vitamins B and D per doctor's instructions.
Treatment during muscle cramps.
(a) The patient should lie on her back and extend the affected limb. A
second individual should apply pressure on the patient's knee with one hand and
sharply flex the foot with the other hand (see figure 8-1). The affected muscle may also
be kneaded with the heel or palm of the hand.
(b) Heat may be applied to the area of the muscle cramp.
Figure 8-1. Relief of muscle cramp.