(4) X-rays should be avoided. Radiation from the x-rays can cause
deformity of the fetuses if exposed in the first trimester.
Increase in maternal age.
Tobacco and alcohol.
f. Patients need to be reminded of the potential dangers of the things they may
do or take. The worst damage to the fetus is done in the early weeks of the pregnancy
before she even knows she is pregnant.
PREPARATION FOR LABOR AND DELIVERY
a. Relaxation and Psychological Control of Pain. Several methods of
relaxation and psychological control of pain during labor are listed below:
(1) Lamaze method (Psychoprophylactic method-PPM). This method is the
most widely taught. It deals with combating the fears associated with pregnancy by
teaching relaxation and breathing techniques.
(a) The patient is taught to replace responses of restlessness and loss
of control with more useful activity.
(b) The patient is taught to respond to pain with respiratory activity and
relaxation of uninvolved muscles.
The patient is taught controlled breathing and mind-focusing
(d) The partner is taught to help the patient stay in control.
(2) Bradley method (husband-coached childbirth). This is similar to the
Lamaze method. Emphasis is placed on slow, deep breathing along with complete
relaxation. Women using this practice often appear to be asleep during labor.
However, they are not asleep, but are simply in a state of deep mental relaxation.
(3) Hypnosis. This is an induced state of extreme suggestibility in which the
patient is insensible to outside impressions except the suggestion of her attendant.
b. Signs of Approaching Labor. These signs of approaching labor are taught
to all patients. When the patient notices them, she is aware that labor will be
forthcoming. The signs are: