d. Precautions. Avoid causing further injury and prevent chilling, exposure,
fatigue, and other factors which lessen the body's resistance.
e. Medication. Antibiotics and tetanus toxoid, if needed, are usually
administered at the aid station.
The body incorporates certain defenses against the invasion of pathogens
a. Skin. The skin is the first line of defense since most pathogens cannot enter
b. Phagocyte. Another line of defense is phagocyte cells such as white blood
cells. These cells engulf pathogens and absorb them. Phagocytes increase in numbers
at the site of infection.
c. Immune Substances. Still another line of defense is the development by the
body of antibodies and antitoxins. Because pathogens are foreign substances, the
body reacts and destroys them by producing immune bodies. All patients vulnerable to
gross infection or infectious diseases, particularly tetanus, should receive indicated
prophylactic doses of antibiotics and immunizing agents.
d. Lymphatic System. The lymphatic system also defends the body against
invading pathogens. The lymph acts like a washing machine for the body. It cleanses
the body tissues. Lymph flows into the tubules and glands that act as filters and strains
e. Factors Which Lesson Body Defenses. Several factors that may be
present in combat casualties tend to lessen body defenses. They include wound
injuries, chilling, exposure, fatigue, and malnutrition.
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF INFECTION
Inflammation is a purposeful reaction of tissue to injury. If it develops in the
absence of pathogens, it is called a sterile inflammation. When produced by pathogens,
it is called septic.
a. Changes in Tissue Caused by Inflammation. The changes induced in
infected tissues by inflammation consist of heat, redness, swelling, sensitivity,
tenderness, and pain. In addition, red streaks radiating from the affected area may be
present as well as pus formation, usually in the center of the infection. Malaise,
headache, and fever may also be present.