e. Isometric. These exercises are performed by the patient by contracting and
relaxing muscles while keeping the part in a fixed position. Isometric exercises are
done to maintain muscle strength when a joint is immobilized. Full patient cooperation
TYPES OF BODY MOVEMENT
NOTE: For types of body movement, see figure 5-1.
a. Flexion. The state of being bent. The cervical spine is flexed when the chin
is moved toward the chest.
b. Extension. The state of being in a straight line. The cervical spine is
extended when the head is held straight.
c. Hyperextension. The state of exaggerated extension. The cervical spine is
hyperextended when the person looks overhead, toward the ceiling.
d. Abduction. Lateral movement of a body part away from the midline of the
body. The arm is abducted when it is held away from the body.
e. Adduction. Lateral movement of a body part toward the midline of the body.
The arm is adducted when it is moved from an outstretched position toward the body.
f. Rotation. Turning of a body part around an axis. The head is rotated when
moved from side to side to indicate "no."
g. Circumduction. Rotating an extremity in a complete circle. Circumduction is
a combination of abduction, adduction, extension, and flexion.
h. Supination. The palm or sole is rotated in an upward position
Pronation. The palm or sole is rotated in a downward position.
GUIDELINES FOR RANGE OF MOTION EXERCISES
a. Plan when range of motion exercises should be done (see figures 5-2 and
5-3). Plan whether exercises will be passive, active-assistive, or active. Involve the
patient in planning the program of exercises and other activities because he/she will be
more apt to do the exercises voluntarily.
b. Expect the patient's heart rate and respiratory rate to increase during