b. Contaminated Water. Contaminated water is water which is unfit for human
consumption, even though it may be palatable (see c below). Contaminated water
contains microorganisms; wastes or sewage that render it unfit to drink; or chemical,
c. Palatable Water. Palatable water is water that is pleasing to the taste,
significantly free from color, turbidity, taste, and odor, which may be unsafe
d. Brackish Water. Brackish water is unfit for drinking because of salty or
unpleasant tastes that are caused by excessive amounts of undissolved chemicals,
e. Polluted Water. Polluted water is water that contains substances such as
garbage, wastewater, mud, or other pollutants that make it objectionable because of
appearance, taste, or odor. Polluted water is usually contaminated and may be easily
detected, but may not contain disease-producing bacteria.
f. Water Treatment. Water treatment refers to the removal of undesirable
constituents in water through means such as coagulation, sedimentation, filtration, and
disinfect ion. Treated water is classified as palatable or potable.
g. Disinfectant. Any oxidants used to kiII or inactivate most pathogenic
microorganisms. Disinfectants are oxidants that include: chlorine, oxide, chloramines,
and ozone added to water.
h. Disinfection. Disinfect ion refers to treating the water in order to destroy
microorganisms by either adding chemicals, heat (boiling), ultraviolet light, ultrasonic
i. Chlorination. Chlorination refers to the disinfect ion of water by the addition
of a chlorine compound such as calcium hypochlorite, sodium hypochlorite, or gaseous
j. Parts Per Million. Parts per miIIion (ppm) is a unit of measurement for
expressing the number of units of a substance in one miIIion units of water by weight.
Since 1 miIIiIiter (ml) of water weighs 1 gram (g), this relationship may also be
expressed as mg/l (miIligrams per liter). Both terms are used interchangeably.
k. Reverse Osmosis. Reverse osmosis (RO) is a process that separates
suspended and dissolved solids from filtered water, which is done by forcing raw water
under very high pressure against a thin film called a membrane. The membrane allows
purified water to pass through, while the suspended and dissolved solids stay on the
I. Dissolved Solids. The total amount of dissolved solids, organic and
inorganic, contained in water or wastes.
m. Total Dissolved Solids. Total dissolved solids (TDS) are the amount of all
dissolved impurities contained in a water sample determined by use of a TDS meter.