n. Turbidity. Turbidity is the suspension of impurities in water. Muddy water
has a high turbidity.
o. Backwashing. Backwashing is the removal of accumulated solids from a
filter by using a reverse flow of filtered water. The operation mayor may not be
preceded by a reverse flow of compressed air.
p. Brine. Brine is very salty water.
q. Desalination. Desalination is the process of removing salt from
sea or brackish water.
a. Commander. The unit commander is responsible for the adequacy and
safety of the water used by his troops. He must enforce the rules of water discipline
(see f below) and ensure that each individual thoroughly understands the danger of
drinking contaminated water. When treated water is not obtainable, the commander
must ensure that proper water treatment methods are used in his unit. The unit field
sanitation team assists the commander in carrying out these responsibilities.
b. Quartermaster Corps. Personnel of the Quartermaster Corps (QM) are
responsible for setting up and operating bulk water treatment equipment. The QM units
procure, treat, and distribute the water. Sometimes water is transported by QM unit
personnel to centralized water distribution points (dry points) for easy pick up by field
units. However, the normal procedure is to erect standpipes adjacent to the water point
for water trailer or container unit pick up.
c. Corps of Engineers. The Corps of Engineers selects sources of water and
establishes water distribution points based upon information received from the Army
d. Army Medical Department. Army Medical Department personnel are
responsible for conducting bacteriological and chemical examinations of water, as well
as chlorine residual and pH testing under certain situations, enforcing and establishing
water quality standards, and inspecting water points and sources. Army Medical
Department personnel advise commanders and engineers/QM as to the methods of
purification that should be used to produce potable water. Once appropriate laboratory
and field examination of water is complete, it is also the AMEDD responsibility to
approve or disapprove the water for consumption.
e. Field Sanitation Team. The field sanitation team reports all water
inadequacies to the unit commander. The team, with regards to military water supply, is
(1) Instructing soldiers in sanitary methods of washing individual eating
(2) Assisting the commander in providing guidance to personnel and
inspecting them and the facilities for proper water sanitation procedures.