b. Ankyloglossia. In ankyloglossia (figure 2-10), the tongue is restricted in its
movements by a strand of mucosa (lingual frenum) that attaches the anterior third of the
tongue to the floor of the mouth and the lingual gingival mucosa. Persons with this
condition are commonly called "tongue-tied." Treatment is surgical.
Figure 2-10. Ankyloglossia.
c. Geographic Tongue. Geographic tongue, or benign migratory glossitis, is
characterized by alternating red areas with a yellowish-white border (figures 2-11 and
2-12. This appearance is caused by alternating areas of hypertrophy and atrophy of the
filiform papillae. In the areas of atrophy, the fungiform papillae appear as irregular,
reddish areas surrounded by horny growth (keratosis). In the areas of hypertrophy,
filiform papillae appear as whitish areas. The patterns developed are variable with
changes in shape and position from time to time. The cause of this lesion is unknown.
Developmental defects may also be present. These defects are responsible for a
secondary burning sensation caused by debris collection, Treatment consists of proper
cleansing of the tongue.
Figure 2-11. Geographic tongue, dorsal view.