e. Macroglossia. A congenital macroglossia is generally caused by an
overdevelopment of the muscular portion of the tongue. Surgical correction is the
treatment indicated for severe cases. Macroglossia may develop after removal of teeth.
This develops as a hypertrophy (increase in cell size) when the teeth no longer contain
the tongue within the previously established boundaries.
f. Aglossia. In this condition, a portion or all of the tongue is absent. Rarely is
all the tongue absent.
2-11. HAIRY TONGUE
Hairy tongue (or black hairy tongue) occurs on the dorsum of the tongue. The
filiform papillae are hypertrophied and may be colored by substances in the diet.
Treatment consists of good oral hygiene and brushing the tongue.
2-12. SYSTEMIC SMOOTH TONGUE
Systemic disorders may cause a smoothness of the tongue because of atrophy
of papillae on the dorsal surface. Associated color change may denote the possible
underlying cause. A bright, "beefy-red" tongue is associated with pernicious anemia,
pellagra, or nicotinic acid (niacin) deficiency. Deficiencies of vitamin B and niacin may
cause a magenta-colored atrophic tongue. Because of the papillae atrophy, these patients
generally complain of a burning sensation as a symptom of this disorder. Patients with
burning, smooth tongues should be evaluated for vitamin B12 deficiency or other
systemic causative factors.
Section III. DEVELOPMENTAL ANOMALIES OF THE TEETH
Developmental anomalies of teeth are marked deviations from the normal
standards in color, contour, size, number, and degree of development of the teeth.
Systemic as well as local factors may operate to produce these developmental
disturbances. Such influences may begin before or after birth so that either deciduous
or permanent teeth may be involved. Usually, it is the permanent teeth that are
influenced and, in all instances, only those not completely formed at the time of the