and trained in sanitary food-handling practices since they could infect others through the
food they prepare or serve. Food handlers should be inspected by the supervisor at the
beginning of each shift. Individuals who are ill are to be sent to the clinic and are to
return to food-handling duties only when they are no longer infectious.
i. Prophylaxis. Inoculations against certain diseases are given as a
prophylactic (preventive) measure.
Section IV. INTESTINAL DISEASES
Intestinal diseases are usually caused by the contamination of food and water
with human feces or urine; therefore, they are sometimes called "filth diseases." They
result chiefly from poor hygiene and poor sanitation. Both of these factors can be
controlled by good common-sense practices of cleanliness. Persons who keep their
hands and bodies clean and who consume only food and water that have been properly
prepared and treated seldom develop these diseases. The problem of intestinal
diseases exists in most parts of the world and requires constant vigilance, especially in
areas where native sanitation is primitive. These diseases may affect large numbers of
individuals at the same time and cause a serious loss of fighting strength. Two terms
commonly associated with communicable intestinal diseases are diarrhea and
a. Diarrhea. Diarrhea refers to a fecal discharge which is primarily liquid and
which occurs more frequently than normal.
b. Dysentery. Dysentery is an intestinal disorder characterized by inflammation
of the intestines (especially the colon), pain in the abdominal region, tenesmus
(ineffectual and painful straining when trying to have a bowel movement or when trying
to urinate), and stools containing blood and mucus.
1-22. PRINCIPAL INTESTINAL DISEASES
Sometimes the terms "GI's," "abdominal cramps," or "diarrhea" are used to
describe intestinal illnesses in general. Some of the communicable intestinal diseases
of military importance are bacillary dysentery, cholera, bacterial food poisoning, and
a. Bacillary Dysentery (Shigellosis). This disease is one cause of diarrhea
among troops. It is caused by bacteria of the genus Shigella. Symptoms vary from mild
diarrhea to severe dysentery with fever, vomiting, cramps, and stools containing blood,
pus, and mucus. It occurs worldwide and outbreaks are common under conditions of
crowding and poor sanitation. It is seldom fatal except for the very young, the very old,
and patients who have been weakened by other disease or injuries.