1-26. METHODS OF TRANSMISSION OF ARTHROPOD-BORNE DISEASES
Disease agents are transmitted by arthropods in two general methods--
mechanical transmission and biological transmission.
a. Mechanical Transmission. In mechanical transmission, the disease-
producing organisms are picked up on the body or the legs of the arthropod and then
deposited on food, drink, or open sores. An example of mechanical transmission is the
transfer of typhoid or dysentery organisms from fecal matter.
b. Biological Transmission. In biological transmission, the arthropod becomes
infected by biting a diseased human or animal. The organism develops in the body of
the arthropod and is later transmitted to a susceptible individual, usually by a bite as in
the case of malaria. A less common type of contamination occurs when the broken or
chafed skin of a susceptible individual comes into contact with the body juices or feces
of the arthropod as in the case of louse-borne typhus.
1-27. ARTHROPOD-BORNE DISEASE CONTROL MEASURES
a. Reservoir. Human sources of infection are controlled through personal
hygiene, surveillance, isolation, quarantine, and treatment. Animal reservoirs are
normally controlled by restricting their access to human habitation and/or by
b. Transmitting Arthropods. Diseases can be controlled by killing the flies,
mosquitoes, and other arthropods that transmit disease and by destroying their
c. Sanitation. Proper sanitation will prevent flies and other arthropods from
coming into contact with human wastes.
d. Susceptible Persons. Susceptible persons are protected from arthropod-
borne diseases primarily through individual protective measures (para 1-28) and
immunizations. Vaccines are available for immunizing against plague, yellow fever, and
epidemic typhus; however, they are only administered to personnel who are assigned to
geographical areas where these diseases are prevalent.
1-28. INDIVIDUAL PROTECTIVE MEASURES
Individual protective measures are to be used by each soldier. Since these
measures are essential for the effective prevention and control of malaria, they are
frequently called "malaria discipline" even though they are also necessary for the
prevention and control of most other arthropod-borne diseases. The closer an
individual gets to combat, the more important it is that he know how to apply individual
protective measures. Instruction given in training periods should be repeated when
necessary and applied on field maneuvers. Commanders must strictly enforce