(4) Neurogenic bladder. Neurogenic bladder is the term used for any
disturbance of the bladder function that is caused by impairment of the nerve supply.
Such dysfunction can occur by prolonged urinary stasis in the bladder but is more
frequently caused by the use of catheters.
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS
Pain, a primary symptom associated with urinary tract infection, involves the
kidneys, the ureter, and the bladder. Kidney pain will be manifested as a dull ache in
the flanks extending along the rib margin toward the umbilicus. (The flank is the side of
the body between the ribs and the pelvis.) In the ureter, pain radiates from the
costovertebral angle down the course of the ureter to the scrotum or vulva to the inner
thighs. During urination, the individual experiences bladder pain that radiates to the
LABORATORY PROCEDURES FOR URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS
Common laboratory procedures for urinary tract infection include the following:
routine analysis, culture sensitivity, blood tests, cystoscopic examination, and X-ray
a. Routine Analysis. Routine analysis is done to check for abnormalities. A
routine analysis includes a check of the following:
Specific gravity for testing the kidney's ability to concentrate urine.
pH-balance to reflect the metabolic status.
(3) Presence of white blood cells, red blood cells, crystals, and casts (a
menstruating female will normally have red blood cells present).
(4) Glucose that is indicative of diabetes. Many drugs give false positive
tests for glucosuria. Examples of such drugs include Kelflex, large doses of ascorbic
acid, penicillin, Benemid R, tetracycline, and thiazides.
(5) Odor (a sweet smell) with a presence of acetone is associated with
diabetes mellitus, while an unpleasant smell is associated with decomposition or
ingestion of certain drugs or foods.
(6) Color and transparency. Pale urine indicates diabetes insipidus. If the
urine is milky, there may be fat globules or pus corpuscles present. Reddish urine may
indicate the presence of blood pigments, drugs, or food pigments. Greenish urine is
indicative of bile pigment, which is associated with jaundice. Brown-black urine may
indicate poisoning or hemorrhage.